Molecular Basis of Hereditary Hair Diseases [Published online in advanced , by J-STAGE]

[Advanced Published online The Keio Journal of Medicine, by J-STAGE]
<Title:> Molecular Basis of Hereditary Hair Diseases
<Author(s):> Yutaka Shimomura
<Abstract:> The hair follicle is an appendage of the skin that undergoes hair cycles throughout life. Recently, numerous genes expressed in the hair follicles have been identified, and variants in some of these genes are now known to underlie hereditary hair diseases in humans. Hereditary hair diseases are classified into non-syndromic and syndromic forms. In the Japanese population, the non-syndromic form of autosomal recessive woolly hair, which is caused by founder pathogenic variants in the lipase H (LIPH) gene, is the most prevalent hereditary hair disease. In addition, other types of hereditary hair diseases are known in Japan, such as Marie-Unna hereditary hypotrichosis, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and tricho rhino phalangeal syndrome. To ensure correct diagnoses and appropriate patient care, dermatologists must understand the characteristics of each hair disorder. Elucidation of the molecular basis of hereditary hair diseases can directly tell us which genes are crucial for morphogenesis and development of hair follicles in humans. Therefore, continuation of “wet laboratory” research for these diseases remains important. To date, several syndromic forms of hereditary hair diseases have been approved as designated intractable diseases in Japan. As part of our efforts in the Project for Research on Intractable Diseases through the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan, we anticipate that more hereditary hair diseases be recognized as designated intractable diseases in the future, which will be to the benefit of the affected individuals.
<Keywords:> hereditary hair diseases, woolly hair, hypotrichosis, liph, ectodermal dysplasia

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