Hospital Preparedness for COVID-19: The Known and The Known Unknown [Published online Keio J Med, 70, 25-34, by J-STAGE]

[Published online The Keio Journal of Medicine Vol.70, 25-34, by J-STAGE]
<Title:> Hospital Preparedness for COVID-19: The Known and The Known Unknown
<Author(s):> Daiki Kaito, Kazuki Matsumura, Ryo Yamamoto
<Abstract:> In late March 2020, we faced a nosocomial outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Presently, COVID-19 is an unprecedented worldwide biohazard, and a nosocomial outbreak can occur in any hospital at any time. Therefore, we reviewed the literature regarding hospital preparedness, the initial management of COVID-19, and the surveillance of healthcare workers (HCWs) to find information that would be generally useful for physicians when confronted with COVID-19. In terms of hospital preparedness, each hospital should develop an incident management system and establish a designated multidisciplinary medical team. To initiate case management, COVID-19 should be suspected based on patient symptoms and/or high-risk history and then should be confirmed by viral testing, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Although some patients will become critically ill, the guidelines for respiratory failure and septic shock for non-COVID-19 cases can be followed for supportive treatment. Antiviral medications should be carefully selected because the available information is confused by the large volume of preprint literature and unreliable data. HCWs who have come into contact with patients with COVID-19 can generate new in-hospital clusters of COVID-19 cases. Quarantine following contact tracking with risk stratification is effective in preventing transmission, and the essentials of medical surveillance include monitoring different types of symptoms, delegation of supervision, and continuation of surveillance regardless of the RT-PCR results. Preparation for COVID-19 is recommended before the first COVID-19 case is encountered.
<Keywords:> COVID-19, novel coronavirus, preparedness, initial management, quarantine

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