<Title:> Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Diverse Pathophysiology Revealed by Genetic Research, Toward Future Therapy
<Author(s):> Takeharu Hayashi
<Corresponding author E-Mill:> takehayashi(at)tulip.ocn.ne.jp
<Abstract:> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an intractable disease that causes heart failure mainly due to unexplained severe cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. HCM, which occurs in 0.2% of the general population, is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. HCM has been studied extensively using molecular genetic approaches. Genes encoding cardiac β-myosin heavy chain, cardiac myosin-binding protein C, and troponin complex, which were originally identified as causative genes, were subsequently reported to be frequently implicated in HCM. Indeed, HCM has been considered a disease of sarcomere gene mutations. However, fewer than half of patients with HCM have mutations in sarcomere genes. The others have been documented to have mutations in cardiac proteins in various other locations, including the Z disc, sarcoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria. Next-generation sequencing makes it possible to detect mutations at high throughput, and it has become increasingly common to identify multiple cardiomyopathy-causing gene mutations in a single HCM patient. Elucidating how mutations in different genes contribute to the disease pathophysiology will be a challenge. In studies using animal models, sarcomere mutations generally tend to increase myocardial Ca2+ sensitivity, and some mutations increase the activity of myosin ATPase. Clinical trials of drugs to treat HCM are ongoing, and further new therapies based on pathophysiological analyses of the causative genes are eagerly anticipated.
<Keywords:> hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, disease-causing genes, pathophysiology